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用語集

    日本一充実したビットコイン用語集を作りたい!

    River Financial の Bitcoin Glossary をベースに、日本語のビットコイン用語集を構築中です。用語集作りに参加して、ビットコインを稼ぎませんか?

    以下の英語の用語説明を日本語にしてください。忠実な翻訳でなくて構いません。AI翻訳にかけて内容を理解した上で、ご自身の言葉で説明してください。

    日本語の提案はGitHubでプルリクエストとして受付中。プルリクエストがマージされたら、報酬をライトニング⚡️送金します。
    提案手順はこちらの「2. 用語集の用語説明の提案手順」をご参照ください。

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    ビットコイン用語集

    索引           英数字

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    英数字

    用語 英語表記 説明 報酬
    51%攻撃 51% Attack 攻撃者がビットコインブロックチェーンに既に刻まれたブロックを改ざんするには、改ざん対象のブロックだけではなく、その後に生成された全てのブロックについて、再度プルーフ・オブ・ワークが求められます。ビットコインブロックチェーンでは、ノードは最も長いチェーン、すなわち、最も多くのブロックから成るチェーンを正当なチェーンとみなします。そのため、攻撃者が改ざんブロックを含むチェーンを正当なチェーンとしてノードに承認してもらうには、他の正直なマイナーたちを出し抜いて、彼らよりも先に新規ブロックを生成する必要があります。
    これを行うには、攻撃者はビットコインネットワークの51%以上のハッシュパワーを掌握しなければなりません。つまり、他の全てのマイナーの演算能力の総計を上回る演算能力を確保することが求められます。この攻撃難易度の高さ故に、ビットコインは不正取引やチェーンの巻き戻しが難しい、安全性の高いネットワークなのです。
    ハッシュレートが重要なのは、51%攻撃リスクを測る尺度だからです。ハッシュレートはビットコインネットワークに投入される総演算能力(総採掘力)の指標で、ハッシュレートが高いほど、51%攻撃に要するコストも上昇します。そのためハッシュレートは、51%攻撃に対する耐性の指標になります。
    2,100 sats
    ASIC (特定用途向け集積回路) Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a special microchip built for exactly one purpose. Bitcoin ASIC miners, the hardware devices that contain these chips, are designed solely to hash blocks in order to find a valid Proof-of-Work. Essentially, the only function these microchips perform is the SHA-256 hash function on a block header. Because mining has become such a large industry, the difficulty has risen to the point where using a CPU or GPU to mine is no longer profitable. Having a single purpose affords ASIC miners critical efficiency gains in an industry where the tiniest efficiency improvement can give a miner the edge. The rapid innovation around Bitcoin ASICs has partially driven the explosion of hash rate over the last decade, bolstering Bitcoin’s security. 2,100 sats
    BIP 125 (RBF) BIP 125 (Replace-by-Fee) Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 125 introduces Replace-by-Fee (RBF) to Bitcoin. This soft fork enables users to replace an unconfirmed transaction with a similar transaction paying a larger fee. Some Bitcoin wallets, such as Electrum, now allow users to use RBF. When a transaction is broadcast, it pays a defined fee to the miner of that transaction. If the fee is too low, miners will defer mining that transaction in favor of other transactions which paid higher fees. In order to speed up a transaction’s confirmation, a user can take advantage of RBF to increase the fee of their transaction. Nodes following BIP 125 will accept the new transaction and remove the older version from their mempool. Before BIP 125, Bitcoin nodes would automatically reject a transaction which attempted to spend UTXOs already spent in a different transaction in their mempool. BIP 125 created a caveat to that rule. However, a transaction must opt into RBF in its first version to make RBF possible. This is done using the sequence, a previously unused field of a transaction input. 2,100 sats
    BIP 174 (PSBT) BIP 174 (PSBT) Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 174 introduced Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) as a community standard. PSBT is a standardized format for communicating unsigned or partially signed Bitcoin transactions. PSBT was originally designed to enhance interoperability between wallets and other Bitcoin software, making it easier for a transaction to be constructed by one wallet, transferred to another for signing, and then transferred to a Bitcoin node for broadcasting. PSBT is also particularly useful for coordinating between parties who wish to sign the same transaction. For example, CoinJoin protocols and multisig outputs require multiple different actors to all sign the same transaction. The PSBT format provides a method for constructing the transaction, passing it between the different signers, and then assembling the final transaction to be broadcast. BIP 174 is currently widely adopted as a community standard, however it has several downsides, which are currently being addressed by a proposal for PSBT v2. 2,100 sats
    BIP 32 (階層型決定性ウォレット) BIP 32 (Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets) BIP32は階層型決定性(HD)ウォレットの標準規格と拡張鍵をビットコインに導入したビットコイン改善提案です。
    BIP32のおかげで、ビットコインウォレットは大幅に改善しました。まず、HDウォレットは拡張秘密鍵1つを転送するだけで全ての鍵セットを別のウォレットに転送可能なため、ウォレットの相互運用性が飛躍的高まりました。
    同様に、1つのシードでウォレット全体を復元できるので、ウォレットの復元性も向上しました。この改善はBIP39で拡張され、シードの保存と記憶が容易になりました。
    また、BIP32によって、新規アドレスの生成と保管が可能な閲覧専用ウォレットが作成できるようになりました。閲覧専用ウォレットはビットコインの受け取り、残高の確認、トランザクションの生成が秘密鍵不要で、秘密鍵をコールドストレージに保管したままできるため、安全性が高まりました。
    2,100 sats
    BIP 39 (ニモニックフレーズ) BIP 39 (Mnemonic Phrases) BIP39はニモニックフレーズの規格を導入したビットコイン改善提案です。ニモニックフレーズはシードを12または24の単語リストに変換するための標準手段で、ニモニックフレーズさえあればウォレットの秘密鍵をすべて復元できます。
    BIP 39が定める規格はほぼ全ての主要ビットコインウォレットに採用されていますが、Bitcoin Coreには実装されておらず、技術的な難点もいくつかあります。ただ、ニーモニックフレーズにはセキュリティ上の既知の弱点はなく、ビットコインウォレットを容易にバックアップする方法として普及しています。
    2,100 sats
    BTC BTC BTC is the ticker symbol for Bitcoin. One bitcoin is denoted as 1 BTC, just as one U.S. dollar is denoted as 1 USD or one share of Apple Inc. is denoted by 1 AAPL. One BTC is divisible into 100,000,000 units, called satoshis or sats. 2,100 sats
    DEX (分散型取引所) Decentralized Exchange (DEX) A decentralized exchange (DEX) is meant to facilitate the exchange of bitcoin without forcing users to sacrifice privacy or custody to an exchange. DEXs offer access to their exchange without Anti-Money Laundering (AML) procedures, meaning they do not collect a user’s government-issued ID, address, or phone number. Decentralized exchanges vary in the full extent of their decentralization; some are simply non-custodial, but maintain a central authority to arbitrate disputes while others are fully decentralized protocols. Most DEXs also execute bitcoin trades directly between users without taking control of the bitcoin as middlemen. Often, decentralized exchanges will require the bitcoin seller to deposit bitcoin into a 2-of-3 multisig address, where each party - the buyer, the seller, and the DEX, holds a key. When the seller receives payment, the buyer and seller then co-sign a transaction sending the bitcoin from the multisig address to the seller’s address. If either party breaches the agreement, the aggreived party can appeal to the DEX, who can use their key to resolve the dispute. 2,100 sats
    ECDSA ECDSA The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm or ECDSA is a cryptographic scheme for producing digital signatures using public and private keys. All Bitcoin keys and signatures are currently generated using ECDSA. An ECDSA signature allows someone to publish a public key and then create a signature of some data with their private key, such that anyone can verify that the signature was created by the owner of this public key. However, no one is capable of deriving the private key from the public key or the signature. Nor can this signature be used to forge a signature for other data. ECDSA signatures are used to sign all Bitcoin transactions thanks to these strong security features. An elliptic curve is a defined mathematical function of the general format y^2 = x^3 + ax + b. For Bitcoin, this curve has the specific equation y^2 = x^3 + 7, as a = 0 and b = 7. Any point on this elliptic curve, called secp256k1, is a valid Bitcoin public key. In order to generate a public key, a user must generate a private key, which is simply a large number. Next, this private key is multiplied by a defined point called the Generator Point, to produce the public key. This multiplication is point multiplication, which behaves differently than normal multiplication. Critically, point division is incalculable, meaning a public key cannot currently be used to derive a private key, giving the ECDSA scheme its security. 2,100 sats
    HTLC (ハッシュタイムロックコントラクト) Hashed Time Locked Contract (HTLC) A Time Locked Contract is a Bitcoin transaction which includes a timelock. This Bitcoin transaction is hashed to form a Hashed Time Locked Contract or HTLC, which is used mainly on the Lightning Network to allow Lightning payments to be routed across multiple nodes. Lightning routing allows two parties to trustlessly transact without a direct channel between them, using intermediary channels instead. 2,100 sats
    HODL HODL HODL is an adage native to the Bitcoin community, derived simply from a misspelling of the word “hold”. It advises bitcoiners to remain stoic and avoid selling in the face of the extreme price volatility Bitcoin often experiences. Bitcoiners believe bitcoin to be the future global reserve asset, and thus, its gains should be astronomical, even relative to current prices. Thus, while trading could potentially offer short term gains, hodling is the safer alternative in that a hodler can never find themself with fewer bitcoin than they started with. The term HODL finds its origins in a post on the BitcoinTalk forum from an inebriated bitcoiner during a price crash. 2,100 sats
    RBF (Replace-By-Fee) Replace-By-Fee (RBF) In Bitcoin, RBF stands for Replace-by-Fee. A Bitcoin transaction can be designated as RBF in order to allow the sender to replace this transaction with another similar transaction which pays a higher fee. This mechanism exists to allow users to respond if the network becomes congested and fees rise unexpectedly. If a user sends a transaction with a low fee, and finds that it is taking too long to confirm, the user can raise the fee they pay to confirm their transaction faster. RBF only works while the transaction is in the mempool. As soon as a transaction enters a block, it cannot be replaced by fee. Additionally, when a transaction is first sent, it must specify that it is available to be replaced by fee. This is achieved by setting the nSequence, a small part of each transaction, to any value below 0xfffffffe. The nSequence of a transaction is intended to allow a transaction to be updated after it has been broadcast. Also see BIP 125 (RBF) -
    UASF User-Activated Soft Fork (UASF) A User-Activated Soft Fork (UASF) is an update or change to the Bitcoin network’s protocol initiated by users or nodes, who integrate new code into their Bitcoin implementations and demonstrate their acceptance of the change so that miners and other users can implement the same changes knowing they will maintain consensus. Since the update is a soft fork, updating is not required because the changes to the protocol are backwards compatible. If a node does not update, they are not harmed at all. 2,100 sats
    UTXO UTXO 未使用トランザクションアウトプット(UTXO) -
    UTXOセット UTXO Set The UTXO set is the comprehensive set of all UTXOs existing at a given point in time. The sum of the amounts of each UTXO in this set is the total supply of existing bitcoin at that point of time. Bitcoin is special as a money in that anyone can verify the total supply at any time in a trustless manner. All nodes maintain identical copies of the UTXO set. When a new block is created, the UTXO set is updated as some UTXOs were spent and new ones were created. The UTXO set is also important because it allows all nodes in the Bitcoin network to detect and reject attempted double spends, wherein someone attempts to spend the same bitcoin twice. Nodes must store the entire UTXO at all times in order to determine which bitcoin exist, and thus can be spent, at any given point in time. 2,100 sats
    vByte vByte A vByte is a unit of measure for the weight of blocks and transactions. The vByte was introduced by the SegWit upgrade. A vByte is equivalent to 4 weight units, and thus, a block is limited to being 1 vMegabyte large, or 4 million weight units. Wallets usually calculate and display transaction fees in terms of sats/vByte, meaning the fee is paid per vByte of data used. Thus, the larger the transaction, the larger the total fee must be to ensure the desired speed of verification. This setup also makes SegWit transactions cheaper than regular transactions, as a byte of Witness data is only equivalent to 1 weight unit (1/4 vByte), while a byte of non-Witness data is 4 weight units (1 vByte). 2,100 sats

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