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    日本一充実したビットコイン用語集を作りたい!

    River Financial の Bitcoin Glossary をベースに、日本語のビットコイン用語集を構築中です。用語集作りに参加して、ビットコインを稼ぎませんか?

    以下の英語の用語説明を日本語にしてください。忠実な翻訳でなくて構いません。AI翻訳にかけて内容を理解した上で、ご自身の言葉で説明してください。

    日本語の提案はGitHubでプルリクエストとして受付中。プルリクエストがマージされたら、報酬をライトニング⚡️送金します。
    提案手順はこちらの「2. 用語集の用語説明の提案手順」をご参照ください。

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    ビットコイン用語集

    索引           英数字

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    用語 英語表記 説明 報酬
    サイドチェーン Sidechain A sidechain is a protocol that relies on the Bitcoin blockchain for data or security, but conducts its own operations on a separate blockchain. A sidechain can be used to make the most of Bitcoin’s ultimate security while allowing for more block throughput or cheaper transactions. For example, Blockstream’s Liquid sidechain is federalized rather than decentralized and creates a block every minute as opposed to Bitcoin’s 10 minute, probabilistic block times. Microsoft ION is a sidechain project which implements digital identity and relies on Bitcoin’s blockchain for security. 2,100 sats
    サイファーパンク Cypherpunk Cypherpunks are an unofficial and loosely connected group of individuals focused on building hardware and software to protect privacy and individual sovereignty. Cypherpunks are concerned with governments’ race towards a surveillance state as well as corporate domination of technology and intellectual property. Satoshi Nakamoto and nearly all of the original Bitcoin developers such as Hal Finney were cypherpunks. As outlined in A Cypherpunk's Manifesto, cypherpunks generally believe in using cryptography and software rather than politics and advocacy to achieve freedom and privacy. This sentiment is summarized in the slogan “Cypherpunks write code”. 2,100 sats
    サトシ Satoshi Satoshis, often abbreviated to “sats”, are the atomic unit of Bitcoin, named after Bitcoin’s creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. A single Bitcoin represents 100 million satoshis (1 BTC = 100,000,000 sats). Thus, there will only ever be 21 million bitcoin, and there will only ever be 2.1 quadrillion sats. This feature makes Bitcoin more divisible, enabling payments smaller than $0.01 at current prices.In Bitcoin’s codebase, all values are actually denominated in satoshis, and the unit Bitcoin is only used by markets and those discussing Bitcoin. 2,100 sats
    サトシ・ナカモト Satoshi Nakamoto Satoshi Nakamoto is the anonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin who published the whitepaper on October 31, 2008 and mined the first Bitcoin block on January 3, 2009. Satoshi mined over 1 million BTC and developed the project in its early years before withdrawing and ultimately disappearing. Ever since, Satoshi has not moved any of this bitcoin.
    Satoshi’s disappearance left Bitcoin without a central leader who could dictate the direction of the project, a source of strength in the eyes of most Bitcoiners.
    The atomic unit of Bitcoin is the satoshi, in honor of Bitcoin’s founder.
    2,100 sats
    ジェネシス・ブロック Genesis Block The Genesis block is the first block in the Bitcoin blockchain. Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, mined the Genesis block on January 3, 2009 and included that day’s Financial Times headline, “Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks” in the block as a statement of Bitcoin’s purpose: avoiding the inequity and corruption inherent in the fiat monetary system. The Genesis block is special in a few ways. Firstly, its previous hash, the part of the block which references the previous block, is empty. This is because there is no previous block to be referenced. Secondly, the first 50 BTC, created in the coinbase transaction of the Genesis block, is unspendable. 2,100 sats
    時間選好 Time Preference Time preference refers to an individual’s preference to own an asset at an earlier date as opposed to a later one. Higher time preference indicates that time-to-ownership is more important. Time preferences for consumption leads consumers to borrow money to purchase goods before they earn enough money to pay for them upfront. For example, when people buy houses with mortgages they are borrowing because they want to start living in the house right away. Financially, it is almost always superior to have ownership of goods or assets as soon as possible. However, this may not be the case for assets that are difficult or expensive to store. Time preferences are highly related to the interest rates lenders charge borrowers. Time preferences affect the way investors weigh monetary payoffs. Cash flows in the far future are discounted more heavily than cash flows which will occur sooner. 2,100 sats
    シード Seed シードは階層型決定性(Hierarchical Deterministic,略してHD)ウォレットを生成するために使用するデータです。これさえあれば、ウォレットの秘密鍵と公開鍵の再生成が可能なため、バックアップとして有効です。HDウォレットにおいてシードは決定論的であるため、所与のシードからは毎回全く同じ鍵が生成されます。また1つのシードから生成可能な公開鍵と秘密鍵のペアはほぼ無限です。
    シードは単なるエントロピーであり、ランダムな数字の羅列でしかありません。シードはマスター秘密鍵と呼ばれる1つの拡張秘密鍵(extended private key/xprv)を生成するために使用され、拡張秘密鍵からは子秘密鍵だけでなく子公開鍵も生成できます。ウォレット利用者は拡張秘密鍵から必要に応じて無限に鍵ペアを生成することができるため、アドレスの再利用を回避してプライバシーを守れるだけでなく、ウォレットのバックアップも簡単にできます。
    ランダムな数字の羅列であるシードは扱いにくいため、通常はニモニックフレーズで表現されます。ウォレットのバックアップにもニモニックフレーズが使われます。シードはビットコイン改善提案BIP32、ニモニックフレーズはBIP39で標準規格とされています。
    2,100 sats
    シビル攻撃 Sybil Attack A sybil attack targets a network of peer-to-peer nodes by flooding the network with nodes which are all controlled by the same entity. These malicious nodes attempt to form a dominant majority of the network and convince honest nodes of dishonest facts. For example, a vendor on eBay may flood their competition with negative reviews to trick customers. Bitcoin is not a majority-rule system. Instead, Bitcoin is run by Nakamoto consensus, wherein every node runs exactly the code and ruleset they wish to run. Those who run the code form a network, while those who do not are excluded. Critically, the method for determining the valid state of the blockchain is objective, and does not rely on the opinions of other nodes. Thus, a sybil attack on Bitcoin is far more difficult to execute because controlling a simple or even supermajority of nodes will not allow an attacker to alter the ruleset used by honest nodes. 2,100 sats
    シュノア署名 Schnorr Signature Schnorr is a type of digital signature scheme similar to the ECDSA scheme used by Bitcoin since its inception. The Schnorr scheme presents several advantages over ECDSA, and is thus currently in the process of being implemented in Bitcoin via the Taproot upgrade.
    Firstly, the Schnorr scheme is provably secure and non-malleable, two improvements over ECDSA. Secondly, compared to ECDSA signatures, Schnorr signatures take less time to verify. Schnorr signatures and public keys can be aggregated, meaning that multiple parties with unique private keys can sign the same message with much greater efficiency. Thanks to this feature, Schnorr signatures can be verified in batches instead of individually, further speeding up verification.
    Key and signature aggregation also enable privacy gains by obscuring the number of signatures present on a transaction. Finally, Schnorr signatures are also smaller than ECDSA signatures, offering savings on fees for those spending Schnorr outputs.
    When Bitcoin was invented, the Schnorr scheme was still patent-protected, and thus Satoshi Nakamoto decided to use ECDSA as the signature scheme for Bitcoin. The Schnorr patent has since expired, and Schnorr is currently in the process of being implemented in Bitcoin.
    2,100 sats
    承認 Confirmation 承認とは、ビットコイントランザクションがブロックチェーンに追加されることを指します。トランザクションは一旦承認されると、それ以降に生成されるブロックからも順次承認されます。承認回数が増えるほど、トランザクションの取り消しや置き換えは困難になります。一般的にトランザクションは6承認をもって最終決済と見なされます。
    ウォレットで生成され、ビットコインネットワークにブロードキャストされたトランザクションは、即時決済されるわけではなく、まず未承認または保留中トランザクションとして mempoolに入ります。マイナーはブロック生成時、収益性が高い、つまり、単位データあたりの送金手数料が高いトランザクションからブロックに取り込みます。トランザクションがブロックに取り込まれると、mempool から削除されて承認済みと見なされます。
    ただし、この時点ではトランザクションはまだ1承認しか得ていません。2~6回承認されるまでは、取り消しや置き換えが可能と考えた方が安全です。1承認しか得ていないトランザクションは、取り込まれたブロックが上書きされてオーファンブロックと化す可能性が否定できません。オーファンブロックに含まれるトランザクションは、mempoolに戻されて再び保留状態になります。保留中の未承認トランザクションを受金完了、決済完了として処理するのは危険です。同じビットコインをインプットとする、より高い手数料を支払う別のトランザクションに置き換えられる可能性があるからです。
    2,100 sats
    ステーブルコイン Stablecoin A stablecoin is a cryptocurrency intended and designed to be stable in price. This property is achieved by pegging its value to a fiat currency, cryptocurrency, or less commonly, to a commodity. This peg and the issuance of the stablecoin are managed by a centralized party, typically a company, which also maintains the stablecoin. Their business model is to lend and invest with part of the assets that are backing the stablecoin. Stablecoins are typically issued as an asset on top of a blockchain that has its own native asset. This gives stablecoins the benefits of speed and global access of a blockchain, and the programmability of cryptocurrency, all while maintaining a relatively stable value and being less subject to regulation than fiat currencies. With that said, it is important to note that the centralized party that maintains the stablecoin has full control over all the assets. The most popular stablecoins today are Tether (USDT), USD Coin (USDC) and Binance USD (BUSD). They are frequently used by traders to rapidly move in and out of cryptocurrencies and to move their wealth between exchanges to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities. Stablecoins are also gaining in popularity as a store of value in countries with high inflation, where people may struggle to obtain physical dollars and cannot hold them through their banking services. 2,100 sats
    ストック・フロー比率 Stock-to-Flow (S2F) Stock-to-flow (S2F) is a measure of the new supply of an asset that is being created over time, relative to the existing supply. This ratio can be expressed in several ways, including the percentage of the supply being added annually, or the number of years the supply would take to double at the current rate of production. Stock-to-flow is a commonly cited metric in Bitcoin markets. Bitcoin’s stock-to-flow will continue decreasing indefinitely as the supply increases, and the Bitcoin halving lowers the rate of production in a stepwise fashion every four years. Currently, Bitcoin has a similar stock-to-flow ratio to gold. However, Bitcoin’s ratio will decline continuously in the coming years, whereas gold’s will not. Bitcoin’s stock-to-flow ratio is also much more predictable and precisely auditable at any point in time. 2,100 sats
    スマートコントラクト Smart Contract A smart contract is a digitally created and enforced contract. As with regular contracts, these contracts can become as complex as the language in which they are written allows. Bitcoin’s contract language, called Script, is intentionally limited, giving Bitcoin security and simplicity. However, other layers or applications built on top of Bitcoin make use of more complex smart contracts. Smart contracts can be used to design loans, timelocked transactions, and even derivative products. 2,100 sats
    送金手数料 Transaction Fee ビットコインの送金を指示するトランザクションを、マイニングを介してブロックチェーンに取り込んでもらうためには、送金手数料を支払う必要があります。送金手数料はブロック報酬と並び、マイナーにマイニングを促すインセンティブを形成しています。トランザクションが支払う手数料が高いほど、マイナーがブロックに含めるインセンティブが大きくなるため、迅速に処理、承認されます。
    マイナーは各ブロックに最大 4MB※ のデータしか格納できないため、送金手数料の合計ではなく、手数料とバイトの比率(sats/vByte、satoshi建て手数料/仮想バイト)に基づいてトランザクションを評価します。したがって、ほとんどのウォレットでは送金手数料をsats/vByteで表示されます。
    送金手数料は大きく変動します。迅速な承認を得るために高い手数料を支払うトランザクションもあれば、承認に数時間〜数日要するのを覚悟で低い手数料を支払うトランザクションもあります。
    将来的にはビットコインネットワーク上での取引需要が高まるにつれて送金手数料が上昇すると予想されています。手数料を節約する方法としては、UTXOの統合、複数トランザクションの一括処理、SegWit など最新トランザクションタイプの使用などがあります。
    ※原則 1MB とされているものの、SegWit 導入により最大 4MB まで格納可能となっています。
    2,100 sats
    ソフトフォーク Soft Fork A soft fork is a fork, or a change to a project’s source code, which is backwards compatible, meaning that it is not imperative that all nodes adopt the upgrade. Soft forks preserve consensus and flexibility in a distributed system because they allow some nodes to adopt upgrades and make use of new innovations while other nodes who do not wish to upgrade are not forced out of the network or put at risk. For example, LED light bulbs offer an improvement on traditional filament light bulbs. However, LED light bulbs can be screwed into the exact same sockets as traditional bulbs. Upgrading a home to LED bulbs therefore does not render traditional bulbs useless. This characteristic makes LED lightbulbs a soft fork. Due to the benefits of soft forks, Bitcoin development relies heavily on soft forks and avoids hard forks, which demand that all nodes upgrade, at all costs. One principle of Bitcoin development is that no member should be forced out of consensus simply because they do not upgrade their node. While most Bitcoin nodes currently run the latest version, a node running the very first version of Bitcoin is still compatible and would be accepted by the network. 2,100 sats

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